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Maciej Laskosz | 13 lutego 2015 14:04

Redakcja radzi: Problemy z turbosprężarką

_MG_9316a

Gorąco - źle, zimno - jeszcze gorzej

Wirnik turbosprężarki to element, który potrafi obracać się z prędkością kilkuset tysięcy obrotów na minutę. Nie trzeba być fizykiem, by domyślać się, jakie procesy termiczne zachodzą przy jego pracy. Temperatura nierzadko dochodzi nawet do 350-400 stopni Celsjusza. Bez wgłębiania się w szczegóły wspomnę tylko, że aby całość się nie spaliła ani nie zatarła, jest tam potrzebny olej, który nie tylko tworzy specjalny film zmniejszający tarcie, ale także odprowadza ciepło. Nagłe wyłączenie silnika po ostrej jeździe powoduje, że turbina nie ma chłodzenia, a wirnik z potężną prędkością obrotową potrafi kręcić się jeszcze kilkadziesiąt sekund. Olej, który zatrzymuje się w urządzeniu może się zwęglić, co w efekcie powoduje uszkodzenie łożyska i zapchanie kanalików. Dlatego warto przed zakończeniem jazdy "wychłodzić" turbosprężarkę, nie forsując jej lub czekając pół minuty z włączonym silnikiem na biegu jałowym. Z kolei gdy rano odpalamy nasz samochód, warto jest odczekać chwilę, aż cały układ będzie dobrze nasmarowany, nim wciśniemy mocniej gaz. Praca "na sucho" dla turbosprężarki jest równie destrukcyjna jak jej przegrzewanie.

Turbosprężarki są też bardzo wrażliwe na jakość oleju. Jeżeli znajdą się w nim opiłki, element ten bardzo szybko się zużyje. Wrogiem turbo jest także zbyt niskie ciśnienie oleju w silniku, co powoduje zwiększone tarcia między elementami, przez co zużywają się przedwcześnie łożyska.

Aby zachować odpowiednio długą żywotność, zalecane jest skracanie wymian oleju nawet o jedną trzecią. Jeśli jest stary, zawiera dużo agresywnych substancji, które reagują z elementami uszczelniającymi wirnik. Oczywiście trzeba pamiętać o odpowiednich parametrach oleju. Przy okazji wymiany warto profilaktycznie skontrolować układ dolotowy wraz z filtrem powietrza. Nieszczelny układ ssący może złapać jakieś ciało stałe, które po dostaniu się dalej z łatwością uszkodzi łopatki.

sprężarka turbos problemy

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